A miner can be configured with an owner address, a worker address, and additional control addresses. These allow granularity in how the funds sent and received from the miner are managed and provide additional security to the mining operation.

During miner initialization, a miner actor is created on the chain, and this actor gives the miner its ID t0.... The miner actor is in charge of collecting all the payments sent to the miner. For example, when a payment is sent for honoring the different types of deals, that payment goes to the miner actor, not the miner itself.

The Lotus Miner daemon performs the operations required by the network and can use different Lotus node wallets to pay the fees or interact with the miner actor. Check out the set up section for more information on how to manage Lotus wallets.

The currently configured addresses used by a miner can be listed with:

lotus-miner actor control list

The different types of addresses associated with a miner are described below:

The owner address

The owner address corresponds to a Lotus node address provided during the miner initialization. The owner address is only needed when:

  • Changing the owner or the worker address in the miner actor.
  • Withdrawing balance from the miner actor.
  • Submit WindowPoSts, unless control addresses are defined and have enough balance (continued below).

The address chosen to be the miner’s owner address is designed to be kept offline in cold storage, or backed up by a hardware wallet. In production environments, we strongly recommend using separate owner and worker addresses.

The owner address can be updated with the following command:

lotus-miner actor set-owner --really-do-it <new address> <old address> && lotus-miner actor set-owner --really-do-it <new address> <new address>

The old and the new address must be available to the Lotus node. You can create a new address or import an existing one.

The worker address

The worker address is used to send and pay for day-to-day operations performed by the miner:

  • Initializing the miner on the chain.
  • Changing the miner peer id or the multiaddresses.
  • Interacting with market and payment channel actors.
  • Signing new blocks.
  • Submitting proofs, declaring faults. WindowPoSts are submitted using the worker address if:
    • Control addresses are not defined or do not have enough balance.
    • The owner address does not have enough balance.

Unlike the owner address, the address set as the miner’s worker address should be part of the Lotus local wallet and accessible by the miner. The Lotus Miner will trigger all the necessary transactions using the Lotus node to which it is connected. The worker address must have enough funds to pay for the day-to-day operations of the miner, including initialization.

Control addresses

Control addresses are used to submit WindowPoSts proofs to the chain. WindowPoSt is the mechanism through which storage is verified in Filecoin and is required by miners to submit proofs for all sectors every 24 hours. Those proofs are submitted as messages to the blockchain and therefore need to pay the respective fees.

Many mining-related actions require sending messages to the chain, but not all of those are as high-value as WindowPoSts. By using control addresses you can stop the first transaction holding up a line of transactions. This blocking problem is known as head-of-line blocking.

Multiple control addresses can be created and configured. The first control address that has enough funds to submit a WindowPoSt transaction will be used. If there are no control addresses with sufficent funds then the owner address will be used. If the owner address has insufficent funds, or is unavailable, then the worker address will be used to submit a WindowPoSt.

Otherwise, Lotus fails over to the owner and ultimately to the worker address.

To set up a control address:

  1. Create a new address and send it some funds for gas fees:

    lotus wallet new bls
    lotus send --from <address> f3defg... 100
  2. Inform the miner of the new address:

    lotus-miner actor control set --really-do-it f3defg...
    Add f3defg...
    Message CID: bafy2...
  3. Wait for the message to land on chain:

    lotus state wait-msg bafy2...
    Exit Code: 0
  4. Check the miner control address list to make sure the address was correctly added:

    lotus-miner actor control list
    name       ID      key        use    balance
    owner      t01111  f3abcd...  other  300 FIL
    worker     t01111  f3abcd...  other  300 FIL
    control-0  t02222  f3defg...  post   100 FIL

Repeat this procedure to add additional addresses.

  1. You can specify other actor to check control address:
lotus-miner --actor f01000 actor control list

Use control addresses for commits

Clean up the tasks required for your worker address by setting your control addresses to perform pre-commits and commits. With this, only market messages are sent from the worker address. If the basefee is high, then you can still put sectors on chain without those messages being blocked by things like publishing deals.

  1. Create two control addresses. Control addresses can be any type of address: secp256k1 or bls:

    lotus wallet new bls
    lotus wallet new bls
    lotus wallet list
    Address   Balance  Nonce  Default
    f3rht...  0 FIL    0      X
    f3sxs...  0 FIL    0
  2. Add some funds into those two addresses.

  3. Wait for around 5 minutes for the addresses to be assigned IDs.

  4. Get ID of those addresses:

    lotus wallet list -i
     Address   ID        Balance                   Nonce  Default
     f3rht...  f0100933  0.59466768102284489 FIL   1      X
     f3sxs...  f0100939  0.4 FIL                   0
  5. Add control addresses:

    lotus-miner actor control set --really-do-it=true f0100933 f0100939
     Add f3rht...
     Add f3sxs...
     Message CID: bafy2bzacecfryzmwe5ghsazmfzporuybm32yw5q6q75neyopifps3c3gll6aq
      lotus-miner actor control list
    name       ID      key        use    balance
    owner      t01...  f3abcd...  other  15 FIL
    worker     t01...  f3abcd...  other  10 FIL
    control-0  t02...  f3defg...  post   100 FIL
    control-1  t02...  f3defg...  post   100 FIL
  6. Add the newly created addresses into the miner config under the [Addresses] section:

        PreCommitControl = ["f3rht..."]
        CommitControl = ["f3sxs..."]
  7. Restart lotus-miner.

Managing balances

Get the balances associated with a miner wallet by calling info:

lotus-miner info
Miner: t01000
Sector Size: 2 KiB
Byte Power:   100 KiB / 100 KiB (100.0000%)
Actual Power: 1e+03 Ki / 1e+03 Ki (100.0000%)
  Committed: 100 KiB
  Proving: 100 KiB
Below minimum power threshold, no blocks will be won
Deals: 0, 0 B
  Active: 0, 0 B (Verified: 0, 0 B)

Miner Balance: 10582.321501530685596531 FIL
  PreCommit:   0.000000286878768791 FIL
  Pledge:      0.00002980232192 FIL
  Locked:      10582.321420164834231291 FIL
  Available:   0.000051276650676449 FIL
Worker Balance: 49999999.999834359275302423 FIL
Market (Escrow):  0 FIL
Market (Locked):  0 FIL

In this example, the miner ID is t01000, it has a total balance of 10582.321501530685596531 FIL, and an available balance of 0.000051276650676449 FIL that can be used as collateral or to pay for the pledge. The worker balance is 49999999.999834359275302423 FIL.

Withdrawing funds from the Miner actor

Transfer funds from the Miner actor address to the owner address by calling actor withdraw:

lotus-miner actor withdraw <amount>

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